A look onto modern cosmology

The genesis of the Bing Bang model

When Albert Einstein (1879-1955) presented in 1916 his theory about general relativity he had behind him the certainty of the inexistence of the ether, given by the experiment of 1887 made by Albert Abraham (1852-1931) and Edward Morley (1838-1923), which was that hypothetical rigid medium that we thought it was a support to the travel of the light and gravity, and that, being static, became the absolute reference of the corps’ movement. Einstein was facing the void, but he didn’t consider it as such, because he thought it as space not meant as pure extension, but as something able to occur in gravitational or electromagnetic field. Einstein traced a Universe with four-dimensional space, where the fourth dimension was time, therefore coming to a non-Euclidean geometry, meaning that two parallel lines in the Universe do not remain perpetually so, but they come to merge into a point and vice versa open.
According to this the Universe couldn’t be thought as static, but in contraction or expansion, and space, in the presence of a mass of attraction, becomes a gravitational space, and curvilinear. The light that has a linear path when it passes through a gravitational field is affected by the curvature of space-time and undergoes a deflection.
It must be immediately said immediately that the four-dimensional space provides only a model of facilitation of calculation in gravity field, because time has a distinctive character from space.
A Universe in contraction or expansion confused Einstein, who introduced a cosmological constant to his equations to make his Universe stationary, which means not in expansion or in contraction.




In 1917 the astronomer Vesto Slipher (1875-1969) of the Lowel Observatory noted that his comments about some nebulas showed the existence of light spectrum with movement toward the red, which means toward lower frequencies. Later, in 1918, the astronomer Carl Wirtz (1876-1939) of Strasbourg Observatory, noticed the same phenomenon and found a linear relationship between the red shift (movement toward red) of the nebulas and their distance from the ground measured by a series of calculations based on yardstick called "standard candles", ingeniously elaborated considering the brightness of sidereal objects. Obviously, these distances are not absolute distances, which means not free of margins of errors. The theory of Vesta Slipher and Carl Wirtz, as well as Einstein’s Theory of Relativity convinced the Belgian physicist Georges Eduard Lemaitre (1894-1966), independently from the Russian physicist Alexander Friedman who came to the same hypothesis, to indicate the existence of a Universe in expansion. Lemaitre formulated a law of proportionality between the distance of celestial formations and their speed of recession, that is the speed with which galaxies seem to move away because of the Universe in expansion. To this law landed also, regardless of Lemaitre’s conclusions , Edwin Powell Hubble (1889-1953) with his comments, made public in 1926, and known as Hubble's Law. Hubble theorized that the Universe was homogeneous, that showed almost the same face in all directions, and with this he didn’t have difficulty thinking of a Universe in expansion like it was a balloon.
Following Hubble’s observations, Albert Einstein stopped introducing the cosmological constant in the equations. Lemaitre in 1931 came to propose the existence of a "primeval atom" that would explode giving rise to the Universe. Lemaitre estimated the age of the Universe as dating back to 10/20 billion years ago. Lemaitre's theory was called Big Bang (big explosion) by Fred Hoyle (1915-2001) in 1948-50. Fred Hoyle was the promoter of a stationary Universe model, where the missing matter for the expansion was continually created. In the ‘40s, on the basis of the Big Bang model, George Antonovich Gamow (1904-1968) proposed the existence of a fossil radiation present in the Universe, according to the idea that matter in the first moments of the expansion was so dense to prevent the passage of the radiation produced by Big Bang. Later, after the rarefaction of the matter, the radiations could filter flooding the Universe when it was greatly expanded. Note that the expansion of the Universe is not considered in the theory as matter launched into space, but as matter that forms the space. Gamow estimated that the temperature of the radiations was 50 degrees Kelvin; later he rectified this fact increasing it to 5 degrees Kelvin, an expectation’s datum that will prove to be incorrect, for excess almost double. These considerations determined the entry into the scientific community of the Big Bang theory, while showing all aspects to motivate. The Big Bang, in particular, speaks about a big explosion from the matter concentrated into a single point at high temperature. A situation of unusual exemption from all laws of physics, without being supported, or rather without the possibility of being any evidence.




No particles accelerator, not even the giant LHC (Large Hadron Collider) in Geneva can reproduce this initial singularity, but only the plasma state of matter. LHC for the supporters of the Big Bang theory can be described as a time machine, a race towards the initial conditions of the plasma, but can’t go further. In fact, if you look at the LHC experiments in themselves, they are nothing more than a survey of the reality of matter, of course, for what it is accessible to man.
The initial singularity is thus not verifiable by any possible experience and therefore does not fall precisely in the dignity of theory, but only of a mathematical artifice based on the application of the theory of the General Relativity to the global dimension of the Universe. It invokes a new theory of the "quantum gravity", but it can only move on a pure mathematical abstraction, not verified by the Galilean method of the experiment


The cosmic background radiation 

In 1964 two physicists, Arno Penzias and Robert Woodrov Wilson, while implementing the test probes with a new microwave receiver of the Bell Thelephone Laboratories, found an unknown microwave radiation. Subsequently, the group headed by Phillip James Peebles of Princeton University, which had begun to seek such radiation as being a cosmic background radiation (CMBR: Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation), found it. The radiation appeared isotropic, that is of equal temperature in all directions, and this contrasted with the thought that the Universe is not as homogeneous. In addition, the temperature levelling required exchanges between the growth areas, in fact, if the expansion had occurred at a faster rate of the electromagnetic radiation the exchange would not be possible and then the CMBR would be very anisostropa. To explain this, and not see the vanishing of the Big Bang theory, it resorted to the "inflationary theory" whose name comes from to inflate (to swell), alleging that shortly after the Big Bang there was a time when  "a negative density of the pressure energy of expansion" acted. This is why Alan Guth, author of the inflationary model (1979-1981), invented a particle hypothesized in action in those moments: the Inflatlon.

With this, there would have been primarily an unusual fast expansion (stretching of space), with cosmic embryos, induced by the gravitational energy and the pressure waves and by the hypothetical dark energy, so close to allow temperature homogenization. The experiment (1998-1999) Boomerang (Balloon observation of milimetric extagalactis radiation anisotropy and geophisics; a ball high in the Antarctic to exploit a hole in our galaxy) arrived to say that the Universe currently has an euclidean geometry (flat universe) on the basis of a "critical density" of the Universe. If the universe consisted only of stars we would have the non-euclidean space, but to exchange this  is not the case.




The Boomerang balloon, whose shuttle contained a telescope and a set of tools for measuring the cosmic background radiation, detected the radiation reaching measures one hundred times lower than those of the satellite COBE (Cosmic Background Explorer), which, launched in 1989,recorded an anisotropy with thermal variations of the order of a millionth of a Kelvin degree  on the data of 2.726 degrees Kelvin.

In 2003 data from the satellite WMAP (WilkinsonMicrowave Anisotropy Probe) pointed to differences in temperature from point to point in the order of a few millionths of a degree Kelvin.

The WMAP satellite were examined for a long time and provided the surprise that there was a dark area in the direction of the constellation Eridanus, from which came the cosmic radiation. It was an area 900 million light years wide. The radio telescopes of the VLA (Very Large Array) in 2007confirmed that from the dark area did not come any radiation.

The isotropy (always with the exception of a certain anisotropy with which the  to inflate is aligned) of the background radiation necessary  to imagine the beginning of space-time are deeply shaken. New deeper measurements will be made  by the Planck satellite placed on a particular orbit a million and a half km far from the earth, where the attractions of the sun and the earth act in the equilibrium position of the satellite (L2 Lagrangian point). The position in the opposite direction of the sun will allow the satellite to be in the shadow zone created by the earth and the moon. The new measures may also reveal a minimum of radiation for the dark area, but as of now, we must necessarily think that at the time of the “to inflate” the universe was not homogeneous. In fact already Margaret Geller, along with John Huchra and Louis Nicolaci Da Costa, in 1989 reported inhomogeneities in the distribution of galaxies, namely the presence of clumps of galaxies. This was confirmed in 1996-98 by an international team led by Jean Maret Einasto and Einasto.

Glen Starkman, professor of physics and astronomy at the University of Stanford, in his lecture at the conference in Moncao (Portugal, summer 2003), suggests that theCMBR, rather than being seen as the energy rest of the Big Bang, was to be considered as coming from stellar bodies through the mediation of the clouds of gas and cosmic dust in the cosmos finally reaching integration with the system of our galaxy, and hence our instrumental record of isotropy and anisotropy. 

The satellite called Planck has provided a set of data that have been presented last March 21st 2013 by the ESA (European Space Agenda). The satellite, launched on May 14th 2009 by ESA, has examined the basic cosmic radiation of the cosmic horizon visible from the earth (we are able to see only 5% of the universe) picking up signals of a millionth of a degree and providing a detailed map of the cosmic sky. In order to perform this operation, the basic radiation has been appropriately picked out from other sources of radiation: stars, galaxies, clusters. As a result, the anisotropy of the basic radiation has been confirmed. However, the percentage variation is not constant, in fact in the right hemisphere of the sky there is a sharp asymmetry in percentage, also presenting a wide “cold” area (according to the instruments of the Plank satellite telescope), much more wider than other 10,000 cold areas that are glimpsed in the cosmic sky. As this was not to be expected, the standard model is even more deeply discussed. This lack of homogeneity of the cosmos does not really mean that the cosmic laws vary from area to area, but only that there is a general cosmic organization that we cannot understand. According to the numbers of the standard model, the basic cosmic radiation was originally found 380,000 years after the Big Bang. We are told that, in such a condition, electrons and protons and photons (electromagnetic radiation) were in a state of boiling soup with a thousand times higher temperature than the actual one in the universe and with a one billion times greater density. In such a condition, the photons, even if distinct from the other particles, were an integrant part of the soup and prevented the electrons and the protons from combine and forming  hydrogen atoms. At this point, we can assume a tremendous expansion of the universe (inflation) with such a temperature decrease that hydrogen atoms were formed and, therefore, there was the possibility for the light to be released. Given that the universe is still expanding, that light released is now included in the microwaves range with temperatures of 2.7 Kelvin above absolute zero and, according to the standard model, it is considered as a fossil remnant of the Big Bang. According to an anonymous interpretation (“Avvenire”, March 15th, 2013) in the map provided by the Planck satellite, we could see the beginning of nucleosynthesis through fluctuations (such as sound waves in the matter) produced alternatively by the gravity and the repulsion of the electrically charged particles. But this is not completely true, given that the particles of electrons and protons are complementary (positive charge and negative charge) and therefore they attract each other forming hydrogen atoms; only electrons repel other electrons and protons repel other protons. All the post-soup densities shown on the map provided by the Planck satellite, arise from different realities and not from oscillations between gravity and repulsion, just because, according to the interpretation of the standard model (this is important not to consider a static model of the universe), an expanding universe overcomes the gravitational attraction that would win only on a local level, while among the particles the attraction and the formation of atoms win. The reality is much more detailed and complex than many people would think. As admitted by the ESA General Director Jean-Jacques Dordain, the Planck satellite has not answered all the questions, indeed it has increased their number.

The red shift

The various substances generate or absorb certain colors, so for example, a gas of sodium produces yellow light when heated, as seen in street lamps. Now, Hubble saw that the colors in the spectra of light recorded by looking at the galaxies were shifted toward the red from their normal position. Hubble thought that this shift was due to the Doppler effect by which light or sound, issued by a body in motion, undergo a stretching or compression. Everyone has noticed that a fast approaching train emits loud sound (compression waves) and then after passing a low sound (stretching of the sound waves). Hubble conceived the red shift.
But the red shift was deemed to originate from other phenomena. It a shift of gravitational type toward the red, had been conceived, but it must be said that this implies huge masses and thus the curvature of space-time resulting in abandonment of Euclidean geometry. Then there is the so-called "transverse Doppler effect" that arises from the celestial object's rotation on its axis, but this is accompanied in the area opposite to the blue shift, that is the blue shift, so the overall red shift of a celestial object is not justified. There is the theory of the "tired light",that is the theory of the light that in travelling between sidereal spaces reduces its energy moving toward the red. The theory of the tired light was not much examined, but it would deserve more attention. Then there is the thought that the light passing through very strong magnetic fields moves toward the red. This effect has been predicted theoretically by Albert Einstein and verified experimentally by Walter Sydney Adams (1875-1956), director of Mount Wilson observatory.

The disruption resulted from quasar to red shift



The valid information that leads to the consideration of the existence of a phenomenon not yet explained comes from a star quasar (quasi-stellar radio source) placed before the nucleus of NGC 7319 galaxy. This galaxy has thick clouds that hide sidereal objects beyond its nucleus. The event was photographed the 3 October 2003, by the orbiting Hubble telescope and was noticed by Pasquale Galianni at University of Lecce, and verified as quasar, with the telescope Kech I, by Halton Christian Arp and Margaret Burbidge. Now, quasar stars have a red shift so high that are placed to the ends of the Universe. That quasar star, so bright like all quasars, according to its red shift, was supposed to be 90 times deeper.



The red shift, therefore, can’t be exclusive evidence of the speed by which astral objects movie away. This fact is accompanied by other observations of the astronomer Halton Christian Arp, working at the Max Planch Institute of Monaco. Arp is a great expert of astronomical distances and quasars. He saw that nearing proximity to almost all the active galaxies, those with large emissions along almost the entire electromagnetic spectrum, such as infrared, radiowaves, ultraviolet, x-rays, gamma rays, there is a number of quasars above average. Arp then considered the existence of links of quasar stars with some galaxies that had a low red shift. Naturally, there is the Doppler effect, and therefore the red shift of the speed of celestial objects remains, but everything becomes more complex, that is richer, and the approach to the Universe can only become much more cautious and humble.

It will be necessary to explain why quasars have so high a red shift, but this may not longer be interpreted only as a Doppler effect. One explanation may be that by Albert Einstein and Walter Sydney Adams, that is due to the interaction of light with a strong stellar magnetic field.

It has been also discovered that galaxies have their own magnetic field (galactic magnetic field) different from the addition of the magnetic fields of individual stars, and these galactic magnetic fields have their weight in the formation of galactic red shift.
But there are also striking phenomena like galaxies colliding with each other making the whole Big Bang scheme more complex, that at this point appears only as a simple sketch of reality.


Plasma cosmology

Strongly alternative to the Big Bang theory is the so-called plasma cosmology proposed in the 60s of the XX century by Hannes Alfven, Nobel Prize for Physics in 1970.
Expert in the magneto field, Alfven argued that magnetic fields have had and still have a key role in the composition of cosmic structures. It was him who proved that the Via Lactea had a magnetic field that was not the simple sum of stellar ones and suggested that this galactic magnetic field was due to the motions of the interstellar plasma. The Nobel prize also suggested that the intergalactic plasma has, with its movements, the ability to generate strong magnetic fields able to overlap the action of gravity. Also proposed that in the cosmos he conjectured, without origin and without limit extension, that is infinite, there were tremendous clashes between matter and antimatter that gave rise to multitudes of Big Bang. Although it’s considered eternal, and then in a static framework, the cosmos is crossed by time and so in continuous evolution, that is to say that it has in itself the continuous evolution and therefore the time. Hannes Alfven saw his theory to lose interest in the 90s’ but, after some difficulties found in the Big Bang model, a number of scientists like Eric Lerner have taken hold of the theory with combactive tone, and easily recognizable extremes. In fact, the radiation coming from the electrical flow of plasma could be only a synchrotron radiation and thus strongly polarized, but the cosmic background radiation recorded by the instrument is not like this. Then, the great annihilations of matter and antimatter conjectured haven’t been considered like a present and constant fact. There are in orbit space laboratories to detect signs of antimatter, but we can’t conclude that matter and antimatter are in a constant dialectic. In fact, the matter had the upper hand over antimatter in cosmic processes postulated in the past, today is almost disappeared..
Undoubtedly, Hannes Alfves observations are precious, but confusing science with philosophy doesn’t honor him. In fact, the theory of plasma cosmology says that the Universe is constantly evolving, and is forced to say this for the reality of things, but at the same time shows that it is in a static framework, which is exactly of what is eternal. Just to make an example, if in a basin full of water the water is agitated by a shock, or by a gust of wind, or by a vibrator placed in the water, or by a chemical reaction, after a while the water returns quiet because it hasn’t in itself the capacity to back in motion, but it must receive it from an external action. So a Universe without cause prior to its evolution, because it’s considered eternal and infinite,not only stops at some point to have motion in itself, but even it can have it from the beginning, because it is eternal and so has no beginning. Ultimately, the theory of plasma cosmology, at least as it is made public, shows the lines of materialist ideology and transfers to the matter the dialectic of thesys-antithesys and synthesis. However matter and antimatter are not in dialectic opposition, but are functional to the whole Universe. The antimatter, in the particle accelerator, is produced in a while and immediately annihilihated by the matter. The antimatter is annihilihated once in contact with the matter. The antimatter has been observed (2013) in the solar explosions-eruptions, by sofhisticated reception equipments of electromagnetic emissions (Heliospheric Observatory - in the orbit at 1,5 million of km from the Earth; it has been launched on the 1995 to study the sun - ESA and NASA project – together with the Japanese Radio-eliograph - interferometer - Nobeyama, which has been assembled on the ground; it is provided with 84 saucers).The antimatter, in the nuclear solar reaction theory represents a breaking out episode, however the antimatter particles could be launched in the space, and in fact a thin stripe of positrons (electron with positive charge), derived from the sun and other cosmic sources, has been observed on the Van Allen stripes (A 200/1000 km till 40.000 km high particle – plasma taurus around the earth) from the particle detector Pamela (Payload For Antimatter-Matter Exploration and Light-nuclei Astrophysic), placed on a Russian satellite, which has been placed in elliptical orbit between 350 and 600 km in the 2005. Plasma cosmology insisted, however, on the inconsistency of the abstract singular initial point, it pointed out that there were physical laws unknown and disconnected with all the physical knowledge. Hannes Alfven therefore has argued that the plasma produced in the laboratories is the same as that of interstellar space, the same of that of nuclear reactions of stars. He said that there isn’t a change in physical laws according to which they have changed. Most likely, just by going against the "abstract singular initial point" Hannes Alfven came to the philosophical mistake of the eternal and unlimited Universe.


Cyclic Cosmologies


A simple instance of these cosmologies is that developed by Neil Turok of Cambridge University and Paul Steinhardt of Princeton University. They suggest that the universe is enveloped in a membrane (brana) with which another brana from another universe collided, bringing about the so-called big bang. But other branas are ready to cause other collisions and further big bangs. The first point to make is that all these branas must be contained in a single super brana. The various branas collide with one another, causing big bangs. This leads to the idea of eternity, in the sense that the finite number of branas in collision continues for infinite time, and so there would be infinite collisions. But if it is true that two branas have to become one in order to determine a big bang, and so on and so on, then it follows that eternity cannot exist, just as two dice thrown for an infinite time repeat infinitely one or other of the 216 combinations possible. Every brana which explodes together with another reduces their number, because in exploding they join together. If there is to be an eternal cyclic process there needs to be a force capable of setting the system in motion again and again, by forming new branas. But this external force, which would continue to act for time without end, infinite, cannot be contained in the finite but must be above the finite in order to function in the infinite and to provide infinite combinations; it must be eternity itself: that is to say, God. Here we come back to Friedrich Nietzsche’s myth of the eternal cycle, but it is immediately de-mythified.

Another instance which harks back to the myth of the eternal cycle is conformal cyclic cosmology (conformal because it would trigger the formation of a universe superimposed on the preceding universe) elaborated by Sir Roger Penrose of Oxford University. This cosmology begins from the formation of black holes which, it is believed, will absorb every type of matter at the death of the universe, making way for a very slow evaporation (Stephen Hawking 1974). It follows that the black holes will vanish and only radiation will remain. At this stage the universe will have been simplified to the point where there is a very low-level disorder as there was in the beginning, and so the end will join the beginning to bring about a new cycle. This theory contains elements of pure fantasy; in particular the idea of linking the end to the beginning in this way is a real circus trick, and physicists cannot accept that matter loses its mass. But if the universe really did die as foreseen, it could never – without the aid of an external force – begin a new life cycle.

But there are many more instances of pure fantasy along the lines of the esoteric serpent swallowing its own tail. This has nothing whatsoever to do with science.


The nucleosynthesis the problem of problems

The modern cosmology visions can’t sustain, if not verbally, that nucleosynthesis, namely the formation of the earliest nucleus of the matter able to attract around them the cosmic matter, and then initiate to form cosmic objects, took place for self-development. In fact, the dynamic expansion of the Universe, affirmed by Big Bang theory, should have been aware of the barriers of the stopping of the matter to thicken it in the middle of the expansion speed. The game between the hypothetical dark matter, which would be the opponent force to gravity and therefore responsible for the acceleration of the surplus - projected from calculations – of the expansion of the Universe and the force of gravity, putting into play the initials acoustic pressure of the Big Bang, cancels the assertion of the possibility that the process of nucleosynthesis has been done for self-development, in fact it has no curbing, but rather the reverse. That's why the Big Bang cosmologists admit that they have no idea on the formation of cosmic structures.
The term nucleosynthesis is elegant, but powerless to express the formation of large sidereal structures, because it refers only to the star formation. The reality however is much more complex because stars are part of those magnificent structures which are the galaxies, and the complexity of nucleosynthesis increases immensely if you think that groups of galaxies are in gravitational concatenation around their galactic center and rotating around it, while each rotates around its gravitational center; and finally, the complexity rises immensely if you think that the whole Universe is in admirable gravitational concatenation. And more powerless than ever is plasma cosmology to explain nucleosynthesis, because the materialist ideology deforms its scientific path.



The dark matter has been traced


The first astronomer who hypothesized the existence of a major quantity of matter than how it’s visible, was Fritz Zwicky on the 1933. The astronomer studied the gravitational behaviour of two masses of galaxies, those of Virgo and Swan, reaching the conclusion that to explain the existence of the gravitation it occurs the presence of a big quantity of matter (he told 400 times bigger than how much is visible).

Anyway It was during the ‘70s that was imposed the doubt according to the major matter of the universe was bigger than how much we could see if Newton’s gravitation laws are applied. For example, the milky way’s stars without a big matter which didn’t appear could has been spreaded around the universe because of the centrifugal force. They also noticed that the stars which were at the centre of the galaxy orbited with a high speed, and those in the fringe areas haven’t a lower speed as the gravitational calculations postulated, but they were speeder (we all know that planets which are near the sun rotate faster then those which are distant). In this case, too, it should hypothesized the presence of big masses of extragalactic matter able to give a gravitational reason regarding the outlying stars’ behaviour which where faster then how it was supposed.

This matter that the calculations postulated was called “dark matter”, so not visible. It constituted approximately the double of those already observed.

The existence of the “dark matter” was denied especially by the astronomer Mordehai Milgrom  stating that Newton’ laws weren’t valid on a galactic scale anymore. However they tried to find the “dark matter” exploiting the fact that a ray of light undergoes a gravitational deflection.

This complex process was called of “gravitational lenses”. In other words, without any pretension to explain this process which availed itself of  the comparison of thousands of pictures, if a ray of light derived from the galaxy undergoes a trajectory flexion even in absence of a visible mass, it means that there was “dark matter”. The astrophysicists in the meantime postulated that the “dark matter” should be of very rarefied gas of higher temperatures, which reaches un million of degree Celsius. This matter was able to emit x rays, which should have been found by the instrumentations.

In fact they were captured by the instrumentations, but the result was different from that one planned, and none could found them in the databases.

The only one who could found them was Miss Amelia Fraser-McKelvie, 22 years old, student at the Aeorospace Engineering College of Melbourne University, during a internship at the School of Phisics of this university. The careful observation of these documentation lead this young student at this result in only three moths, solving a puzzle which couldn’t be solved by the astronomers and astrophysicists for two long decades: “the obscure matter” exists. It has got the predicted general characteristics, and outside the galaxies it is present in huge filaments.

The results obtained by Amelia Fraser - McKelvi were published on the 4th and 6th of april 2011 on the prestigious review  “Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society”.

This result has cancelled the theory which supposed that Newton’s laws weren’t valid in a cosmic scale.


The Astrophysical Journal (March 2012) reports that in the cluster of the 520 Abell galaxies, 2,4 billion light years far from the earth, something new, concerning the blob, has been recorded.
We thought that the blob was strictly linked with galaxies, so that it remained connected also during collisions among them; but the thing is not so elementary.
The astronomers' explanation is triple. Either it's about a reality born from the complex crash of three clusters of galaxies; or there are the relative galaxies but they are of such a weak light intensity that the orbiting telescope Hubble can't see them; or, in the crash, the blob joins together with another blob, like two snowballs, causing a complex of galactic gravitational variations.


But what could you say in front of a lot of data and observations? Personally I say: God

Personally I think to the initial creation of a universe in a state of chaos, where the elements were in shock, in explosion, in a plasma and huge movement state. The cosmos in a state of chaos should not to be considered as without an implicit order, immanent, of an order ready to be admirably expressed.
Chaos was ready to receive from God an omnipotent impulse for the implementation of nucleosynthesis.



So evolution, but not self-development, and this is the substance of the speech that Pope Ratzinger has addressed the Pontifical Commission for Science (Roman Observer, Nov. 1, 2008): "To develop and evolve, the world first must being, and then be passed from nothing to being. It must be created, in other words, from the first Being that is like this for essence.
Claiming that the foundation of the cosmos and of its development is the provident wisdom of the Creator is not to say that creation has to do only with the beginning of world and life history. It implies, rather, that Creator founds these developments and supports them, fixes them and keeps them constantly. (...) The world, far from being originated from the chaos, it looks like an ordered book. It’s a cosmos. Despite irrational, chaotic and destructive elements in the long change processes of the cosmos, matter as such is "legible". It has an innate "math". The human mind, therefore, could engage not only in a "cosmography" studying measurable phenomena, but also in a "cosmology" discerning the internal visible logic of the cosmos
It’s not a problem to think of a Universe that has known expansions, the problem is to think that everything derived from a single source, because it’s difficult believe to galaxies that are close (Andromeda galaxy is approaching Via Lactea and it’s assumed that in 4 billion years could collide and merge into a single galaxy) and that after colliding they become a single galaxy, as the orbiting telescope Hubble has revealed to us.




A universe in state of chaos is not incompatible with the Genesis narration, where creation of things is seen to proceed in stages and at the same time without interruption because, since the beginning, the matter was created to form, with the God creation act, plants, animals and finally man's body with a spiritual soul.


Genesis narration

Undoubtedly, in the Bible there’s the notion of an initial Universe as to reach the present one, as can be seen in Genesis narration (1,1- 2.4). This initial Universe can be called with the classic name chaos.
The text says that in the principle God created the sky and the earth. The time begins with the creative act that produces everything from nothing, that is not starting from a preexisting eternal matter.
The text goes on to say that earth was wrapped by water and that darkness covered the abyss. The abyss (tehom) usually indicates the depths of the ocean, or groundwater, considering that they are in the depths. But the text suggests that the waters of the abyss does not yet exist, there is a single undifferentiated mass that covers the earth, so that with the word abyss is considered the gaseous mass that covers the waters. The sky, where they will put stars and sun, is like a dark cloth that covers the abyss; it miss the light. The earth is presented like previous to the creation of light and to the creation of the sun and stars. The fact is extremely unusual, and can’t be considered a mere exception to the common experience of light emanating from the stars and from the moon, just to introduce the series of the days.
The creation of light is such a new event, the hinge that determines the transition from the initial Universe to the current Universe. The source of this light must be seen, considering the vision of the ancients (CF. GB 38,19), in tanks from which it comes out and returns. Thus we have the day-night, which is replaced by day-night determined by the light of the stars and of the sun.
The text thus constitutes a Universe of departure. Retreating you can think to a primordial chaos, where the elements are in shock, in explosion, so the Universe of departure takes the configuration of a step towards the current universe.

Man at the summit of

Man is certainly in relation to the earth because this is the place he lives in, because from it he gets food and tools for his life, but with the earth he is also in constitutional relationship because he originated from it, as affirmed in the Genesis narration (Gen 2.7) as far as his body is concerned, being that his soul comes from God: "Then the Lord God formed the man with the dust of the ground and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, so the man became a living being".
It’s not exactly accurate to say that God has placed the man on earth, because God has made him from the earth. The Bible says so that firstly comes the body and then, immediately, the soul that gives life to the body, and thus is always: first the formation of the embryo and then, immediately, the infusion of the soul immediately created.
We have exactly the opposite in the reincarnation doctrine: firstly the soul and then the body that leads the soul into a journey of atonement for prior sins.The reincarnation doctrine is clearly incorrect, even if one considers the only fact that it breaks the man unit, reducing the human body to external accidental reality.

The biblical text (Gn 1,1 s) presents man as the summit of the creative work of God. Man is at the top of created things, and it’s perfectly consequent that they are placed under his feet (Ps 8,7).



In the last century many people felt disheartened to learn that the earth is not at the center of the Via Lactea. For them not being at the center was a reason to record a vulnus in themselves, which they translated into pessimism about human value, forgetting that man is at the top of God’s works, and to be at the top means being at the center God’s plan, that God gave us the possibility to know Christ who is the absolute summit.
The thought that there is vegetal and animal life on other planets is not without foundation, because there has been a long and huge history of forms of plants and animal life on earth before man was created. It’s not a deviant thought because it’s a thought that gives glory to God, the creator of a Universe worthy of him.
The draft of God is draft of love, and the free love of God demands that man's love for him grows in earthly existence so that man can reach the apotheosis in the eternal embrace with him in heaven; in that sky which is above every sidereal sky.
So to be at the top of God’s works will be expressed in the eternal embrace with God, in enjoying the beauty of the cosmos, the wonders of so many lives of plants and animals placed in the planets suitable for life. So to be at the summit will coincide with to be truly at the center of everything, because God will give to those who corresponded his love the possession of all.
Then the cosmos will be disrupted and will emerge in a final form by God, that eternal and glorious form (Cf. Rm 8,21; 2 Pt 3,10).


  For by him were all things created, that are in heaven, and that are in earth, visible and invisible, whether they be thrones, or dominions, or principalities, or powers: all things were created by him, and for him: And he is before all things, and by him all things consist". (Col 1,16-17) He is the vertex of each vertex. He is the Father's plan.


Updated on August 27, 2013